The "Romantic" Year Without a Summer: The Little Ice Age's Cultural Impact on Early Nineteenth Century Britain

Kathryn Schlesinger



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Henry and Elizabeth Stommell. Volcano weather: The Story of 1816, The Year Without A Summer. Newport, R.I.: Seven Seas Press, 1983. Print. 7-8.

Brian M. Fagan. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300-1850. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2000. Print. 170.

John D. Post. The Last Great Subsistence Crisis in the Western World. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1977. Print. See page 8 to view the table which views the temperature deviations from the mean 1768-1819. Western Central Europe’s temperature dropped overall from 1814 to 1816 2.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

Elie Halévy. England in 1815. London: Ernest Benn, 1961. 486.


Barry Venning. Turner. London: Phaidon, 2003. Print. 120.

Brian M. Fagan, Op Cit., 172.

Elie Halévy. Op. Cit., 496-497.

Barry Venning. #72, Snow Storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps. Though this is one of Turner’s earlier works, this depicts the frequently seen storm scene described as a prominent theme of naturalism.

From Gainsborough to Constable: the emergence of naturalism in British landscape painting 1750-1810. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1991. Print. 10.

Brian M. Fagan, Op Cit., 170.

See Chichester Canal 1828 by Turner, high levels of tephra in air is seen with the contrast of colors in the sky, specifically the yellow tinges found embedded in the cloud cover.

Hans Neuberger. “Climate in Art.” Royal Meteorological Society 25.2 (1970): 46-56. Print. 46-56.

H.H. Lamb. Climate, history, and the modern world. London: Methuen, 1982. Print. 249-251.

Ibid, 298.

Brian M. Fagan, Op Cit., 202.

Zerefos, Gerogiannis, Balis, Zerefos, and Kazantzidis. “Atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions as seen by famous artists.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7 (2007): 2. Print.

Elie Halévy. Op. Cit., 515.

Brian M. Fagan, Op Cit., 171.

H.H. Lamb, Op. Cit., 248.

John D. Post, Op. Cit., 8-9.

John D. Post, Ibid, 16., original source of quote from K.H. Connell, “The Populations of France in the Eighteenth Century,” In Glass and Eversley, Population, p.448.

“Heavy misfortunes have befallen us, but let us only cling closer to what remains and transfer our love for those whom we have lost to those who yet live.” Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. “21.” Frankenstein. Charlottesville, VA.: University of Virginia Library, 1996. 132.

Anthony John Harding. The reception of Myth in English Romanticism. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1995. Print. 4.

Anthony John Harding, Ibid, 10. Quote is originally from Northrop Frye, A Study of English Romanticism. New York: Random House, 1968.

R.E. Pritchard. Dickens’s England: life in Victorian times. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002. Print. 99. Full hymn by Henry Francis Lyte (1820) can be found on page 99.

Brian M. Fagan, Op. Cit., 173.

Jeffrey Vail. “’The Bright Sun was Extinguis’d’: The Bologna Prophecy and Byron’s ‘Darkness’.” Nineteenth Century Literature Criticism 204 (1997): 183-192.

Print. 194.

Brian M. Fagan, Op. Cit., 171.

John D. Post, Op. Cit., 93-94.

Ibid, 93.

See Joan Marti, and David K. Chester. “Volcanoes, Society, and Culture.” Volcanoes and the environment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 404-440. Print.



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